" Flour is to wheat , as Wine is to Grapes "
What is the most important food in the world?
our text book was wrong - listing wheat as number one. In reality wheat is 2nd in the world.
Parts of a wheat kernel :
* The Germ Where sprout is formed, supports seed fat, vitamins & minerals.
* The coat or Husk The outermost covering of the kernel. "Chaff"
* Endosperm The inner most center of the kernel.
* Bran The layer covering the Germ.
* Separates the Germ & Bran
---bran contains the "fat", which is taken out to give flour a better shelf life. Otherwise it would go rancid.
* Reduces the chance of Endosperm entering into the flour. For Less expensive production & marketing of flour.
---Whiter more exspensive flour comes from the Endosperm.
---Quality of wheat effects the quality of Flour.
[types of milled Flours]:
+Patent = Made with the endosperm
--- remnants from milling patent flour are made into Clear Flour.
+Straight = Made with the whole middle part of the wheat kernel
+Whole Wheat Flour = Made from the Whole kernel.
---Due to fat content in bran, easily spoils/ goes rancid.
What effects wheat?
---Montana produces a large amount of Hard wheat due to the colder, drier conditions
--- Where Oregon produces Soft wheat due to mild, wetter conditions.
Specific Types of Wheat:
+ Hard Red Spring
---Sowed in the spring
---Areas with tough climates
---harvested in the fall
+ Hard Red Winter
---Sowed in the Fall
---Harvested in spring
What kinds of wheat flours are there?
+ Hard Wheat
---High in protein = more Gluten
---Used for bread [produces a chewier inside, crusty outside]
---Made from Spring Red Wheat
---grown in the West, mid-west & Southwest...notably Deaf Smith Country, Texas
---known for mineral content
---Make firm, elastic breads
*England named it Strong Flour
[ Hard Flours ]:
+ High Gluten [11 - 13 % protein]
+Clear [13 - 15% protein]
---Used in producing Bagels, Rye Bread
---Lower in protein = less Gluten
---Used for pastry, cookies [produces tenderness, melt-in-your-mouth texture]
---from mostly the Mid-west
---An asset in pastry due to "smoothness"
[ Soft Flours]:
+ Cake Flour
+ Pastry Flour [used in pie crust, cookies etc.]
Why Use wheat?
* Protein of wheat
which consists of :
---Gluten holds back gas causing bread dough to proof [rise]
---Gives bread structure