28 March 2005

Baking Theory: Dough Preparation & Fermentation

Steps as a Successful Baker :

- Have Balanced Formulas

--- A collection of formulas that work
--- Formulas you have tried out in your bakery & changed to suit your needs
--- Be a Control Freak
--- Have Consistency every time!
--- Know Functions of Ingredients in your formulas, so as to predict the outcome.

-Know Proper Mixing

[1st speed]

--- Remember your Goal is Consistency
--- know that To Control consistency, hold back water.
--- Know NEVER to control mix with flour!

--> Gluten Development

2nd speed]

--- know Proper gluten development VERY important, if dough is mixed too long gluten will separate.

*know your 3 main types of mix:

[Short ] {uneven gluten, tears window}

Uneven Window

[Intensive] { not quite a window, small tears}

[Improved] {fully developed window, feels like skin}

Fully Developed Window

{To check for the development of your dough :
  1. Stop mixer, tug on a piece of dough {always from the bottom, due to more consistent mix} You will feel an elastic feel the longer you mix.
  2. Take out the piece of dough. Start pulling from the bottom of your dough piece Until it is very thin in the middle & forms a window. Let the dough get pliable in your hands -- do not force the stretch.
  3. Hold on sides, & hold up the "window" to the light. You will see the gluten will form "strands" criss-crossing in your dough like a crude mesh , as it starts to develop.
  4. Gently touch with a finger - if it is taught, the dough is ready for the next step}

- Know Fermentation

{note :
artisan bread doughs have longer fermentation}

--- Longer fermentation means shorter mixing.
--- Gluten is modified {Acidity = Flavor}

[ Dough Temperature] [completion of mixing]
{ Best environment for fermentation is 50°F & 80% humidity. Dough doesn't ferment well under 40° F}

---78°F - 84°F [can be as low as 74°F]
---If you lower temp. fermentation slows
---If temp is raised fermentation speeds up.
---Remember cool doughs make for the best fermentation.

[ the process of Fermentation ] [alcoholic fermentation starts]

---Remember fermentation starts as soon as mixer stops.
---This is the MOST important part of bread making
---Gluten is biochemically modified
---improved stretchability
---improved elasticity
---Carbon dioxide gas is produced

-When Scaling out dough

{an efficient experienced baker can handle 8 gal at a time}

---You should never scale out more dough than you can handle in 15-20 minutes. Or dough will ferment further while sitting & product will be nonuniform[larger] .

-Tips for Rounding & Shaping

{ Additional Gluten development = mix + folding (bench work) }

---Cover after pre-shape or "crust" will develop

- Intermediate Proof or Bench Time

---The time when dough has been rounded & now resting under plastic.

- Molding & Shaping

---Flatten dough rounds out to expel gas
---Shape into final loaf

- Panning

Mise en place :

---Strap pans
---Serrated sheet pans

{ seams must be bottom down to prevent splitting of loaf while baking}


---Put into a Proof Box, steamer.
---Almost the last fermentation.
---95°F -98°F , 80% humidity
---Proof according to product
---don't let dry out

{Finger imprint test

  1. Lightly tap the top of a loaf in the proofer-- Finger should stay imprinted in dough if proofed enough
  2. If proofed too long/not enough you can't repair dough.
  3. Over proofed dough can be put into a hotter oven to try & kill yeast immediately. To save product}



10:35 AM, September 06, 2008 Reply  

Great Article, thank you very much….

10:22 PM, July 17, 2009 Reply  

Nice tips. i got really a lot of good information from your blog and they are really worth implemented.I must appriciate your this useful blog. Please continue this great work.

8:55 AM, August 18, 2009 Reply  

good baker tutorial,thanks for sharing the nice article.

10:03 AM, January 28, 2010 Reply  

Very interesting baker article..thanks

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