26 January 2005

Baking Theory Notes: Fats


Clarified Butter By Chiot's Run

Fat added to yeast dough lubricates


  1. Hog fat or other animal fat.

+Molecular Modified Lard

  1. deodorized
  2. consistency is changed
  3. High Plasticity range
  4. Good for pastry

+Standard Shortening

  1. Original Blend
  2. hard oils + soft fats
  3. Animal fats + Vegetable Fats
  4. Not hydrogenated

+Hydrogenated Shortening
[end result is Trans fat = solid fats higher in fatty acid.]
  1. Chemically altered
  2. saturated with hydrogen
  3. Hydrogen atoms attach to fat molecules, become stable [firm]
  4. Made up of vegetable oils [ example ---palm, soybeans, rabeseed, canola]
  5. vegetable oil alone is harder to use
  6. harder to store, turns rancid quickly.
  7. final product = better storage
  8. Easier to build plasticity

+Fluid Shortening

  1. Made from Tropical oils or mutton fat.
  2. Combo of oil + hard fats + emulsifiers
  3. Sold in a tin can.

+Emulsified Shortening Added to bread it aided in the shelf life, inhibits the staling process.

Mono- & Di-glycerides = Surfactant
  • A Surfactant enables you to mix un-mixable compounds
  • A Surfactant lowers the surface tension of whatever solvent you add it to.
  • Surfactant, if used , can cause you to add a higher percentage of sugar than the formula calls for. You don't want that!
High Ratio Shortening
  • Used in Cake batter, which is an Emulsion

+ High Ratio Shortening

  1. mostly used in cakes


  1. 80% fat + emulsifiers + color + water

+Baker's Margarine*
*Must be right percentage of fat content, or fat will not melt in mouth! Pastry texture suffers.
  1. Higher melting point
  2. Colorless
  3. High Plasticity

+Roll-in Margarine*
*Must be right percentage of fat content, or fat will not melt in mouth! Pastry texture suffers.
  1. used for pastry [puff, Danish]

** With Use of butter ---charge per pastry increases, Labor increases
  1. 80 - 81% Butter Fat
  2. 14% water
  3. additives:
+ milk solids
+ minerals

  • Low melting point
  • Gives lot's of Flavor
  • Low Plasticity


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