16 January 2005

Baking Theory notes: Wheat/Flour

" Flour is to wheat , as Wine is to Grapes "

What is the most important food in the world?
* Rice

our text book was wrong - listing wheat as number one. In reality wheat is 2nd in the world.


Parts of a wheat kernel :
Cross Section of Wheat

* The Germ Where sprout is formed, supports seed fat, vitamins & minerals.

* The coat or Husk The outermost covering of the kernel. "Chaff"

* Endosperm The inner most center of the kernel.

* Bran The layer covering the Germ.


* Separates the Germ & Bran
---bran contains the "fat", which is taken out to give flour a better shelf life. Otherwise it would go rancid.
* Reduces the chance of Endosperm entering into the flour. For Less expensive production & marketing of flour.

---Whiter more exspensive flour comes from the Endosperm.

---Quality of wheat effects the quality of Flour.

[types of milled Flours]:

+Patent = Made with the endosperm
--- remnants from milling patent flour are made into Clear Flour.
+Straight = Made with the whole middle part of the wheat kernel

+Whole Wheat Flour = Made from the Whole kernel.
---Due to fat content in bran, easily spoils/ goes rancid.

What effects wheat?
* Climate
* Soil

---Montana produces a large amount of Hard wheat due to the colder, drier conditions

--- Where Oregon produces Soft wheat due to mild, wetter conditions.

Specific Types of Wheat:

+ Hard Red Spring
---Sowed in the spring
---Areas with tough climates
---harvested in the fall

+ Hard Red Winter

---Sowed in the Fall
---Harvested in spring

+ Soft

What kinds of wheat flours are there?

+ Hard Wheat
---High in protein = more Gluten
---Used for bread [produces a chewier inside, crusty outside]

---Made from Spring Red Wheat
---grown in the West, mid-west & Southwest...notably Deaf Smith Country, Texas
---known for mineral content
---Make firm, elastic breads

*England named it Strong Flour

[ Hard Flours ]:

+ High Gluten [11 - 13 % protein]
+Clear [13 - 15% protein]
---Used in producing Bagels, Rye Bread
+Bread flour

+ Soft
---Lower in protein = less Gluten
---Used for pastry, cookies [produces tenderness, melt-in-your-mouth texture]
---from mostly the Mid-west
---An asset in pastry due to "smoothness"

[ Soft Flours]:
+ Cake Flour
+ Pastry Flour [used in pie crust, cookies etc.]

Why Use wheat?

* Protein of wheat
--- Gluten
which consists of :


---Gluten holds back gas causing bread dough to proof [rise]
---Gives bread structure



3:40 PM, July 25, 2008 Reply  

Wheat getting some love, but no mention of Kansas? Woah, crazy. 9 out of 10 years Kansas leads the nation in wheat production, mostly due to their Turkey Red Wheat production. It is a hard red winter wheat.

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